Non-GAAP Financial Measures
Management uses certain non-GAAP financial measures to develop budgets and forecasts, measure and reward performance against those budgets and forecasts, and enhance comparability to prior periods. These measures are believed to be useful to investors and other external stakeholders as supplemental measures of core operating performance and include the following:
(i)Fee revenue and Fee-based operating expenses,
(ii)Adjusted EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA margin, and
(iii)Percentage changes against prior periods, presented on a local currency basis.
However, non-GAAP financial measures should not be considered alternatives to measures determined in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (“GAAP”). Any measure that eliminates components of a company’s capital structure, cost of operations or investment, or other results has limitations as a performance measure. In light of these limitations, management also considers GAAP financial measures and does not rely solely on non-GAAP financial measures. Because our non-GAAP financial measures are not calculated in accordance with GAAP, they may not be comparable to similarly titled measures used by other companies.
Adjustments to GAAP Financial Measures Used to Calculate non-GAAP Financial Measures
Gross Contract Costs
Consistent with GAAP, certain vendor and subcontractor costs (“gross contract costs”) which we manage on certain client assignments in the Property & Facility Management and Project & Development Services business lines are presented on a gross basis in Revenue and Operating expenses. We generally earn little to no margin on the reimbursement of gross contract costs, obtaining reimbursement only for costs incurred. Excluding gross contract costs from both Revenue and Operating expenses more accurately reflects how we manage our expense base and operating margins.
Net Non-Cash MSR and Mortgage Banking Derivative Activity
Net non-cash mortgage servicing rights ("MSR") and mortgage banking derivative activity consists of the balances presented within Revenue composed of (i) derivative gains/losses resulting from mortgage banking loan commitment and warehousing activity and (ii) gains recognized from the retention of MSR upon origination and sale of mortgage loans, offset by (iii) amortization of MSR intangible assets over the period that net servicing income is projected to be received. Non-cash derivative gains/losses resulting from mortgage banking loan commitment and warehousing activity are calculated as the estimated fair value of loan commitments and subsequent changes thereof, primarily represented by the estimated net cash flows associated with future servicing rights. MSR gains and corresponding MSR intangible assets are calculated as the present value of estimated net cash flows over the estimated mortgage servicing periods. The above activity is reported entirely within Revenue of the Capital Markets & Hotels business line of the Americas segment. Excluding net non-cash MSR and mortgage banking derivative activity reflects how we manage and evaluate performance because the excluded activity is non-cash in nature.
Restructuring and Acquisition Charges
Restructuring and acquisition charges primarily consist of: (i) severance and employment-related charges, including those related to external service providers, incurred in conjunction with a structural business shift, which can be represented by a notable change in headcount, change in leadership or transformation of business processes; (ii) acquisition and integration-related charges, including non-cash fair value adjustments to assets and liabilities recorded in purchase accounting such as earn-out liabilities and intangible assets; and (iii) lease exit charges. Such activity is excluded as the amounts are generally either non-cash in nature or the anticipated benefits from the expenditures would not likely be fully realized until future periods. As noted within Note 5, Restructuring and acquisition charges are excluded from segment operating results and therefore not a line item in the segments’ reconciliation to Adjusted EBITDA.